Journal of Surgical Simulation 2021; 8: A: 20 - 20

Published: 30 June 2021


Meeting abstract

Special Issue: Design and assessment of a penile fracture simulation model

Andy Kozan, Mark Logan, Arie Parnham, Matthew Liew, Barnaby Barrass, Suresh Venugopal, Joby Taylor and Chandra Shekhar Biyani
Corresponding author: Andy Kozan, Hull University Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Castle Hill Hospital, Cottingham, UK. Email:


Introduction: Penile fracture is a urological emergency. At present there are no satisfactory training models for penile fracture repair. We propose a novel simulation model for teaching in a safe and risk-free setting.

Methods: A validated circumcision model was used to create a model. Synthetic foreskin was divided into 2 halves. A transverse slit (“fracture”) was created on one part of the first half of the foreskin and was applied over the penile model. A red jelly tablet (“clot”) was placed underneath the cut. The second half of the foreskin was applied over it to cover the defect. The model was assessed by participants and expert faculty at a urology boot camp. Evaluation was performed using a 5-point Likert Scale questionnaire. Data were analysed using Microsoft Excel and IBM SPSS.

Results: Twenty-two urology trainees and four experts participated in the evaluation. Half of the trainees had not seen a case of penile fracture before. The majority of trainees strongly agreed (59%) the model is useful for training with experts similarly agreeing in 75% of cases. The appearance of penile fracture was considered good by both trainees and faculty (68% and 75% respectively). Overall, the ability of the model to represent a realistic simulation of the task was considered excellent by 23% of participants and good by the majority (64%). The expert opinion here was divided. The main difficulties reported were related to fascial planes and urethra.

Conclusion: This new model is the first of its kind and has demonstrated face validity.


penile fracture; simulation; model; urology trainee; surgical training

Additional Information

This work was presented at the SES 2020 online conference, 4 July 2020.