Journal of Surgical Simulation 2022; 9: 83 - 90

Published: 04 August 2022


Original article

Trauma team perceptions regarding in situ simulation

Olga Lucia Bednarek, Samuel Jessula and Samuel Fulton Minor
Corresponding author: Olga Lucia Bednarek, Division of General Surgery, Dalhousie University, 1276 South Park Street, 813, 8th floor Victoria Building, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 2Y9, Canada. Email:


Background: In situ simulation provides an excellent tool for training, education, and quality improvement in trauma care. The benefits have been well described, but there is potential for harm or delay in patient care when running an unscheduled simulation with working staff members. The objective of this study is to assess trauma team member’s perceptions regarding the value of in situ simulation relative to its perceived impact on patient care.

Methods: A longitudinal survey was conducted between February 2019 and July 2020 and included all members of the multidisciplinary trauma team at a level 1 trauma centre in Nova Scotia, Canada. After each monthly in situ simulation, participants were given a 10-question survey with answers on a 5-point Likert scale. Results: One hundred and three surveys were completed. Survey respondents included physicians, trainees, and allied health staff. Simulations were found to infrequently compromise patient care, and minimal patient harm was described. The participants believed that in situ simulations improved many important aspects of trauma care, including communication and identification of latent safety issues. When the required time to complete an in situ simulation increased when COVID protocols were put into practice, the perceived major benefits of in situ simulation relative to its potential harm did not change.

Conclusion: Trauma in situ training is perceived to be a good learning opportunity that identifies safety issues and improves patient care. It is not perceived to cause delays or compromise patient care, even when additional time is required for simulation training.


in situ simulation; trauma; medical education; interprofessional education