Journal of Surgical Simulation 2022; 9: 99 - 106

Published: 12 September 2022


Original article

Face and content validity of novel three-dimensional hydrogel models for vascular anastomosis simulation

Rachel Falconer, Catriona M. Semple, Weixing Wang, Wenmiao Shu, Jennifer Cleland and Angus J.M. Watson
Corresponding author: Rachel Falconer, Centre for Health Science, Old Perth Road, Inverness, IV2 3JH, UK. Email:


Background: Simulation is widely recognized as a valuable adjunct to operative experience in modern surgical training. The aim of this study is to determine the face and content validity of novel 3D hydrogel vascular models for use in anastomosis simulation training.

Methods: Vascular consultants and specialty trainees in tertiary units in the United Kingdom used the models to perform simulated end-to-side anastomoses and provided feedback via an anonymous written questionnaire. 

Results: Nineteen vascular consultants and 14 vascular specialty trainees provided feedback (N=33). Overall, most rated both the double-layer artery model and the vein model as good or very good and believed the models were as good, if not better than, those currently used. Ninety-four percent of participants rated the models as suitable for vascular anastomosis training.

Conclusions: The first generation of OrganLike (Ltd) hydrogel models have appropriate face and content validity for use in vascular anastomosis simulation training for junior surgical trainees. This technology offers an exciting opportunity to develop a range of inexpensive, biodegradable models with standardized pathology to address a wider range of learning needs throughout vascular training.


vascular surgical procedures; hydrogels; simulation training; anastomosis; surgical

Supplementary material

Supplementary file:

Participant questionnaire. Available at